Environment


image - environment

Our Blue Planet is under severe pressure and eco-systems that have supported us for Millennia are  collapsing all around the world. There are many amazing organisations these issues in many different ways and we will provide links to some in this section.

“Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s needs, but not every man’s greed.” 

― Mahatma Gandhi , http://www.gandhiinstitute.org

The Oceans are no exception, they have provided us with  a limitless supply of  food  for  which we have had to do nothing in return.  We are overfishing and poisoning our seas in blind stupidity. We attack the bounties of the sea like savages at war.  It is senseless.

http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/environment/habitats-environment/habitats-oceans-env/oceans-now-onow/

If you can kill animals, the same attitude can kill human beings. The mentality is the same which exploits nature and which creates wars.

Satish Kumar  http://www.resurgence.org/satish-kumar/

Threats to Oceans

Our oceans once seemed like an infinite resource, but today, they face so many threats, that their future is in question. We know less about our oceans than we do about outer space, but our activities threaten to destroy oceans that were once teeming with life. http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/campaigns/oceans/threats/

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The majority of the world’s coral reefs are threatened by human activities.

http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/environment/habitats-environment/habitats-oceans-env/coral-reefs/

More than 60 percent of the world’s reefs are under immediate and direct threat from local sources—such as overfishing, destructive fishing, coastal development, watershed-based pollution, or marine-based pollution and damage

Approximately 75 percent of the world’s coral reefs are rated as threatened when local threats are combined with thermal stress. This reflects the recent impacts of rising ocean temperatures, linked to the widespread weakening and mortality of corals due to mass coral bleaching

2. Changes in climate and ocean chemistry represent significant and growing threats.

Coral bleaching: Rising greenhouse gas emissions are warming the atmosphere and, as a result, increasing sea surface temperatures. Mass coral bleaching, a stress response to warming waters that can weaken or kill coral, has occurred in every coral reef region. It is becoming more frequent as higher temperatures recur.

Ocean acidification: Increasing carbon dioxide in the ocean is altering ocean chemistry and making the water more acidic, which can slow coral growth rates and ultimately weaken coral skeletons.

If local and global threats are left unchecked, the percentage of threatened reefs is projected to increase to more than 90 percent by 2030 and to nearly all reefs by 2050.

3. Dependence on coral reefs is high in many countries, especially small-island nations.

People: Worldwide, approximately 850 million people live  within 100 km of coral reefs; many of whom are likely to derive some benefits from the ecosystem services the reefs provide. More than 275 million people reside in the direct vicinity of reefs (within 30 km of reefs and less than 10 km from the coast), where livelihoods are most likely to depend on reefs and related resources.

Food: A healthy, well-managed reef in the Indian or Pacific Oceans can yield between 5 and 15 tons of seafood per square kilometer per year in perpetuity.

Shorelines: Coral reefs protect 150,000 km of shoreline in more than 100 countries and territories, helping to defend against storms and erosion.

Tourism: At least 94 countries and territories benefit from tourism related to reefs; in 23 reef countries,tourism accounts for more than 15 percent of gross domestic product (GDP).

Disease Prevention: Many reef-dwelling species have the potential for forming life-saving pharmaceuticals, including treatments for cancer, HIV, malaria, and other diseases.

4. Degradation and loss of reefs will result in significant social and economic impacts.

Of the 27 countries and territories most vulnerable to coral reef degradation and loss, 19 (70 percent) are small-island states, where people are more likely to depend on reefs. Nine countries—Comoros, Fiji, Grenada, Haiti, Indonesia, Kiribati, the Philippines, Tanzania, and Vanuatu—are most vulnerable to the effects of coral reef degradation. In these countries, reefs face high threat levels, people are highly dependent on reefs, and their capacity to adapt to reef loss is limited.

  1. While more than one-quarter of the world’s coral reefs are within protected areas, many of these are ineffective or only offer partial protection.

Approximately 28 percent of the world’s coral reefs are within marine protected areas (MPAs). Of the reef area inside MPAs, more than half is in Australia.

Based on our compilation of expert-based ratings of the management effectiveness of these MPAs, we find that only 6 percent of the world’s coral reefs are located in MPAs that are effectively managed. Fourteen percent are in MPAs rated as only partially e effective at achieving management goals.

  1. Policy makers, government officials, resource managers, and others need to take action to protect reefs, and to manage risks locally and globally.

Reefs are resilient—they can recover from coral bleaching and other impacts—particularly if other threats are low.http://water.epa.gov/type/oceb/habitat/coral_index.cfm

Reducing local pressures on reefs—overfishing, coastal development, and pollution—offers the best way to “buy time” for reefs. Doing so would help reefs survive warming seas and ocean acidification while the global community works to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide. http://reefrelief.org

This is best achieved by setting up local MPA  Marine park areas and  MMA Marine management areas this needs to be achieved with the support and involvement of local community to  set up effective marine management infra structure with regulations and restrictions; having established zonation areas; moorings , no take zones etc.

http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/environment/habitats-environment/habitats-oceans-env/coral-reefs/

http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/environment/habitats-environment/habitats-oceans-env/coml-august-ocean-habitat/

http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/photography/photographers/ocean-soul-right-whale/

Copyright © The Marine Foundation Website by Enjie Saco